The Disappearance of Jimmy Hoffa
buy canada goose jacket cheap By Thom L. Jones Missing Person 75 3425. To paraphrase that famous line from The Scarlet Pimpernel, ‘they seek him here, they seek him there, trouble is, Jimmy’s buried everywhere.’ There never really was any serious doubt about why he was killed. There is somewhat less doubt about who was behind the killing. The thing that has really perplexed investigators, and not unnaturally his family and friends, is what happened to the body? He was questionably, the most famous trade unionist in American history, certainly one of the most contentious, and thirty three years after his alleged death, he’s still a pain in the proverbial. His name was James Riddle Hoffa, and his mysterious disappearance in July 1975, triggered off one of the most intensive investigations in the history of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Their inquiry generated thousands of leads and over 16000 pages of documents. In the last fifteen years, the FBI has added more than 500 new pages to its Hoffa file. It is generally believed that Hoffa was killed by the mob because he wanted to make a come back and recapture the presidency of the biggest union in America, a position he had relinquished when he was sent to prison in 1967, after being convicted of fraud and jury tampering. His comeback was something the mob did not want, and organized things accordingly. Hoffa’s rise to power in The International Brotherhood of Teamsters, was as relentless as a steam roller. He was born in Brazil, Indiana on St. Valentine’s Day, 1913. In 1924, his widowed mother moved her family, Jimmy, a brother, and two sisters to Detroit. Quitting school at 14, Jimmy started work as a stock boy with Frank and Cedar Dry Goods and General Merchandising. From there, he moved to a job as a loader at the Kroger Food Company, in 1932. In 1936, fired from Kroger because of his rabble rousing, he became a joint council organizer for Local 299, part of the Detroit Teamsters Joint Council 43. It was the start of a tumultuous career in the union field. He was often jailed for his union work and harassed by management thugs, as the bosses saw him as a growing threat to their control of labour. He transformed Local 299 into a regional powerhouse, building up its membership to canada goose outlet michigan 15000. By 1942, Jimmy Hoffa (photo left) was president of Detroit Joint Council 43, and he was also linked into the Mafia. According to the Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN), Detroit, after the end of the second world war, was a primary point in the drug importation chain, feeding into the rest of America, and in particular, New York, the biggest market for illicit drugs. Heroin, was routed from Sicily, via Marseilles, by an organization headed by Frank ‘Frankie Four Fingers’ Coppola and Salvatore ‘Toto’ Vitale, who became closely canada goose parka uk connected to Hoffa. The two men were both powerful figures in the Detroit Mafia, before Frank’s deportation back to Italy and Vitale’s disappearance in 1956. He may have been murdered and his body buried in a California vineyard. According to Charles Siragusa of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, he was killed by Johnny Priziola and Raffaele Quasarano over a dispute involving payment on a heroin delivery. Interesting footnote: Vitale was the grandfather of ‘Good Looking Sal’ Vitale the ex underboss of the Bonanno family and mob informant. The drugs they organized, were shipped into Detroit under the control of Johnny Priziola, who succeeded Coppola as the Detroit head of the Sicilian Partinico Mafia family in Detroit, and Raffaele Quasarano, aka Jimmy Q, the son in law of VitoVitale, canada goose outlet store toronto of Sicily, another major drug dealer, but one who never made it into America, and stored in fish markets run by Peter Tocco, who was the son in law of Priziola, having married his daughter Ninette. He also happened to be the nephew canada goose coats uk of Angelo Meli, a Detroit mobster with close ties to the old Purple Gang and the New York Mafia families. The FBN suspected that Meli was another major link in the Detroit New York drug chain, working closely with Frank “Cheech” Livorsi, Long Island based, whose daughter Dolores was married to http://www.mycanadagoosejacket.org Meli’s son, Sam. Another daughter Rosemary was married to Tommmy Dio, brother of Johhny Dio canada goose outlet store montreal a powerful figure in the Luchese family in New York, some of the biggest drug dealers in America. Livorsi, a soldier in the crime family of Charlie Luciano, headed up a company in New York, based at 19 Rector Street, in Lower Manhattan, that was involved in a massive black market sugar deal, just after the end of World War Two, that grossed $6 million, an enormous amount of money in those days. One of his in laws, John Ormento, a capo in the Luchese family, ran trucking companies that were used to ship the drugs from Detroit to New York, and canada goose outlet official his son, Thomas, was married to Livorsi’s daughter Patricia. These people really knew how to network. Family wise that is. Their genealogical links are more complicated than a Braille version of Rubik’s Cube, but help to illustrate the way the ‘old’ mob glued themselves together through blood ties, thus minimizing the risk of danger caused by informants. In 1945, Angelo Meli’s niece married William Buffalino, a cousin of Russel Buffalino, who was then underboss of the Mafia crime family centred in Pittston, Pennsylvania, and headed by Joseph Barbara. He of course, would make world headlines when he hosted the infamous Apalachin mob convention in 1957. Russel Buffalino, often referred to as ‘The canada goose outlet reviews Quiet Don,’ may also have been involved in the disappearance of Jimmy Hoffa. He was certainly on the suspect list of the FBI. By the end of the second canada goose jacket outlet uk world war, the Mafia drug traffickers of Detroit were expanding into other activities, including juke boxes, cigarette smuggling and gaming machines. Hoffa’s Local 299 financed the re establishment of a dormant Local, 985, a garage worker’s union, which canada goose factory outlet vancouver once up and running, moved into the gaming machine business. Hoffa’s wife was placed on the company payroll, but under her maiden name, Josephine Poszywak. Through his relationship with the Detroit underworld, Jimmy Hoffa became acquainted with the New York mob, in particular Frank Livorsi and his biological family, which included Thomas and Johnny Diourgardi and their uncle, James “Jimmy Doyle” Plumeri, a tight knit clan, who were all connected directly into the Mafia crime family run by Gaetano Gagliano and Tommy Luchese. Livorsi was also close to Frank Coppola, who had a mistress at one time in Detroit called Fay Tavolacci. Frank got the heave from the United States in September 1948, but continued in the drug business in Italy, operating what the Federal Bureau of Narcotics referred to as ‘the Mafia second line.’ Hoffa’s earlier links to the underworld in Detroit had come about through his relationship with a woman he had known, called Sylvia Pagano who had a clerical job with a union. They had carried on a relationship prior to Hoffa’s marriage. Sylvia moved to Kansas City in 1934 and married a man who was called canada goose jacket outlet sale Sam Scaradino, who was a driver/bodyguard for a local mobster. Scaradino subsequently changed his name for some reason, to O’Brien. Sylvia had a child, a boy called Charles, by a previous relationship, who also adopted this new name. When Scaradino died, Frank Coppola met up with Sylvia and became the boy’s godfather. It was through Sylvia in fact that Hoffa met Coppola, and made his connection into the Detroit underworld. In due course, after Coppola disappeared from Sylvia’s life, Hoffa informally adopted Charles known generally as “Chuckie,” making him a foster son. He and his mother actually moved in with Hoffa and his wife, living in a kind of extended family situation for a number of years. It was not that unusual, as Hoffa’s wife canada goose kensington parka uk Josephine, and Sylvia were old friends, who had walked picket lines together back in the 1930s. However, adopting Chuckie may have been the worst decision Hoffa ever made in his life. Sylvia Pagano also introduced canada goose outlet toronto Hoffa to Maurice “Moe” Dalitz, a close associate of Detroit’s Purple Gang, and a man who would become a major player in Las Vegas, where the Teamster’s canada goose outlet edmonton would invest a lot of money in the years to come. Sylvia was also linked into another mobster who would have a big influence on the events as they unfolded down the years. By the early 1960s, although re married to a man called John Paris, an executive in the laundry industry, Sylvia Pagano Paris was having an affair canada goose outlet las vegas with Anthony Giacalone, a former numbers runner for Detroit mobster Peter Licavoli, and an canada goose outlet online store review enforcer for Joe Zerilli, aka ‘Joe Uno’, undisputed head of the Detroit mob and William ‘Black Bill’ Tocco, his brother in law and perhaps the de facto underboss. Sylvia was made to report on Hoffa’s activities back to Giacalone, who was not only close to another man who was to play a big part in the Hoffa story, Anthony Provenzano, he was also his brother in law. Yet more Mafia related blood ties. In 1952, Dave Beck was appointed head of the Teamsters, and Jimmy Hoffa was given an IBT vie presidency and a seat on the Teamsters’ general executive board. In due course, Dave Beck, like so many other Teamster presidents, would go to jail, in his case for embezzlement. In 1956, Hoffa used his connections to Johnny Dioguardi to gain control of the New York IBT locals though the illegal creation of ‘paper locals,’ in New York city. Passing control of these non existing locals into the management of Dioguardi’s associates, canada goose outlet uk Hoffa was able to engineer the take over of the city’s Joint Council 16. How organized crime gained control over Hoffa remains a matter of conjecture, even among those people who were close to him at the time. He perhaps, began his unholy alliance in order to obtain ‘mob muscle’ to fight management in the rough and tumble years of the Teamsters organizational drives of 1930s and 1940s, and then, seduced by the power he’d created for himself, kept close to the hoodlums who for favours rendered, would guarantee him support and through that, the continuation of the hegemony he’d generated. His status in the union movement of America was not unlike that of the Christian Democratic Party of Italy in the post war years. Both Hoffa and the CD needed Mafia clout to engender votes, and maintain their survival. In 1957, at the IBT annual convention held in Miami Beach, Florida, James Hoffa was elected General President of the Teamsters. In the next ten years he would work relentlessly, developing not only the union’s, but his own image, as hard driving, successful entities. Many of the rank and file looked on Hoffa as a legend in his own lifetime, the man who had made their union one of the most influential America has ever seen. As the president, in 1964, he negotiated the first ever industry wide contract, the National Master Freight Agreement. In that same year, he was convicted in a federal court in Chattanooga for tampering with a jury, and was sentenced to eight years in prison. On May 11, 1964, he was also found guilty on further charges of fraud and conspiracy, getting a further five years. On March 6th., 1967, all his appeals exhausted, Jimmy Hoffa was assigned to serve his sentence at Lewisburg Penitentiary in Pennsylvania. There were a number of organized crime figures doing time here, including Carmine Galante, the fearsome mob boss from canada goose outlet vip the Bonanno family, Anthony ‘Tough Tony’ De Angelis, perpetrator of the great salad oil swindle of the 1960s that almost destroyed the American Express Company, and Anthony Provenzano, a caporegime in the New Jersey faction of the Genovese family, who was serving time for extortion. Although Galante befriended Hoffa, Jimmy had little time for Provenzano. As they were separated, Provenzano was apparently heard screaming, ‘. Between 1948 and 1958, he was a business agent there, and in 1958 became president of Union City’s Local 560, a position he held for the next ten years, before moving up to be president of New Jersey’s Joint Council, and then to IBT vice president. Local 560 was one of the biggest in America with over 10,000 members representing over 425 companies. It was also listed by the Justice Department as the most corrupt. Tony along with his brothers, Sal, Nunzio and Angelo, were all deeply involved in the labor movement, certainly not out of altruistic inclinations, but more for what they could screw out of the organization for themselves and the patron saint of their underworld endeavours, the Genovese crime family, often referred to as ‘The West Side Mob,’ into which ‘Tony Pro’ was inducted, sometime in the early 1960s. For almost twenty years ‘Tony Pro’ ran Local 560 with the proverbial fist of iron, wielded in his absence, by his brothers. Anthony Provenzano had risen in the mob with the help and support of Anthony Strollo, also known in the underworld as ‘Tony Bender,’ himself a close associate of Vito Genovese. Bender and canada goose uk Provenzano grew up together on the same street in the Lower East Side of Manhattan, and when Bender moved his base to New Jersey to take control of the waterfront, among other things, ‘Tony Pro’ saw an opening and went with him. Both men were allegedly involved in criminal activities on the wharves, and may well have been into drug canada goose outlet trafficking. With Bender’s clout and Provenzano’s contact with truckers, it would seem to have been a perfect combination. Access to well controlled transportation was a vital ingredient in the drug business. It was no coincidence that when Vito Genovese went down on his drug bust in 1958, Big John Ormento of the Luchese family, who ran O S Trucking Company and Long Island Garment Trucking Company, was right there with him. Anthony Provenzano’s power was so absolute that throughout the Eastern Seaboard, few contracts were signed, pension fund dollars invested, or major grievances arbitrated without his input. The Teamster’s offices at Local 560 in Union City operated not only as a union headquarters, but also as a base for loan sharking, counterfeiting, sports betting and many other crimes, including contract killings. The men who reported to Anthony Provenzano were believed responsible for many mob murders. Provenzano operated as a ‘skipper’ or crew boss for the Genovese Family in Northern New Jersey. Members of his team included his brother Nunzio, canada goose jacket outlet store the Andretta brothers, Stephen and Thomas, Gabriel and Salvatore Briguglio, Salvatore Sinno, Harold Konigsberg, Armand Faugno, Ralph Picardo, Ralph Pellecchia and Frederick Furino. The crew operated illegal Monte card games in New York and Hoboken and in Jersey City, in addition to their other criminal activities. The building, at 7070 Summit Avenue that housed the headquarters of Local 560, almost proved to be a death trap for Provenzano himself, on one occasion. On a Sunday morning, June 24th., 1962, he was found injured and unconscious on the floor of the building’s elevator shaft. Taken to hospital with injuries that included six broken ribs, he told police had gone to the office to do some paper work and tend to his racing pigeons (a sport beloved of mobsters for some reason,) which he kept on the roof of the building, and had accidentally fallen into the shaft. Fifteen years later, a criminal associate claimed he had pushed Tony into the elevator opening. It was seemingly over a heroin deal that had gone bad. Provenzano, ever the resourceful mobster, claimed the fall an accident, and received $17,000 in compensation. The story may or my not be true. What is more interesting, is that just a few weeks earlier, his mentor ‘Tony Bender’ canada goose outlet toronto address disappeared from his Fort Lee, New Jersey home and was never seen again. Rumour has it he went on a one way trip and was murdered by Tommy Eboli, on the instructions of Vito Genovese. Was Provenzano’s ‘accident’ in some way connected to this? Provenzano’s grip on Local 560 was unassailable. In 1962, his official salary was $20,000. A year later it had increased to $95,000. Along with stipends from his post at the Joint Council 73, and as vice president of the Teamsters, he was earning over $113,000. More than Hoffa earned as leader of the union. Using the consumer price index as a measure, that’s $800,000 by today’s standard. Tony Pro may well have been, at this time, the highest paid union official in the world. He was certainly one of the most crooked. By the late 1960s, Provenzano had allied himself to Frank Fitzsimmons, the man who took over control of the Teamsters when Hoffa went off to prison. The two men became good friends, socializing to the extent that they often travelled the country, playing golf together. Hoffa obviously hated the thought that a man as powerful as Provenzano was backing a man who Jimmy obviously thought of as a temporary back stop for the job of running the Teamsters, until such times as he himself, could regain control. At a Teamster’s convention held in Miami in the early 1970s, after both Provenzano and Hoffa had been released from prison, the two men had another go at each other. According to Dan Sullivan, a New York teamster, Hoffa told him, ‘Pro threatened to pull my guts out and kidnap my children if I attempt to return to the presidency of the Teamsters.’ Jimmy Hoffa’s dream to make a comeback and take over the presidency of the Teamsters, was just that, a dream, according to Michigan organized crime expert, Vincent Piersante, head of the Michigan attorney general’s office. Because of the mob’s tremendous influence on the Teamster’s Union, Hoffa had no chance of returning to power, unless the mob agreed. And the Mafia was not going to do that. The fact that Fitzsimmons and other top officials of the union had been in the pocket of the Mafia was almost indisputable. A new, and different relationship had developed in the union since Jimmy Hoffa had gone off to prison in 1967, and as always with the mob, it was tied into money. There were millions of dollars from the Central States Pension Fund that could be made available to the Dons to fund their schemes and help them grow bigger and more powerful, and Hoffa would not be allowed canada goose outlet store uk to stand between it and them. He’d made a statement on his release from prison: ‘Tell the rats to get off the ship because I’m coming back.’ He may have thought it was a call to arms. In essence, it was his own personal valedictory. By early 1975, it appeared that Anthony ‘Tony Jack’ Giacalone was trying to arrange some kind of sit down with Hoffa and Provenzano to try and resolve their differences. Married to Provenzano’s cousin, Giacalone was also making the rounds of the golf courses with ‘Tony Pro’ and Frank Fitzsimmons. Giacalone was currently under investigation by a federal grand jury, in Detroit, for income tax fraud and extorting a Teamster’s pension plan. He would go down in June 1976 for ten years on another tax fraud case. ‘Tony Jack’ (right) and ‘Tony Pro’ were to be the key elements that on combination, created the fusible mass that led to the destruction of Jimmy Hoffa. On July 30th., 1975, Jimmy Hoffa dressed casually in a dark blue pullover shirt, blue pants, black Gucci loafers, and trademark white socks. Sometime that morning, he received a telephone call at his two storied, cottage style summer house on Square Lake, in Bloomfield Hills, about 20 miles north of Detroit. It apparently confirmed a meeting he was waiting to hear about. in his big, green, two door Pontiac Grand Ville. He told his wife he was going to the Machus Red Fox restaurant, next to a shopping strip on Maple and Telegraph Roads, in Bloomfield Township. buy canada goose jacket cheap
buy canada goose jacket He had told Josephine that one of the men he was going to have lunch with was Anthony Giacalone, and that he and some other associates were waiting for him at the tony, 270 seat eating place which had been opened in December 1965, by food entrepreneur Harris O. Machus. The Red Fox (above) was one of eight restaurants and pastry shops he operated in the Detroit area. Jimmy had often used the place for dining and entertaining. It had in fact, hosted his son, James P. Hoffa’s wedding buy canada goose jacket.